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Turbinaria frondens

(Dana, 1846)

Small colonies are usually cup-shaped. They then develop broad, unifacial, upright to horizontal fronds, or become irregularly contorted. Corallites are immersed to long and tubular, the latter being strongly inclined to the margins of upright fronds. They average 3.5 millimetres diameter.

Colour: Usually a uniform dark or greenish-brown, sometimes yellowish to grey.

Habitat: Shallow reefs and rocky foreshores.

Abundance: Common in a wide range of reef environments.

Similar species:

Taxonomic note: Source reference: Veron (2000). Taxonomic reference: Veron and Pichon (1980). Additional identification guides: Veron (1986), Nishihira and Veron (1995).

Map displaying probable distribution of species. Points indicate recorded sightings from OBIS.
Turbinaria frondens.  Philippines.  Forming a complex of growth-forms.  Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.Philippines.Forming a complex of growth-forms.Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  This species commonly forms large plates with a patchy cover of different sized corallites.  Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.This species commonly forms large plates with a patchy cover of different sized corallites.Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.  Norfolk Island, Coral Sea.  Encrusting colonies usually have patches of prominent corallites.  Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.Norfolk Island, Coral Sea.Encrusting colonies usually have patches of prominent corallites.Charlie Veron.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Corallites on upper or convex surfaces are usually much longer then those of lower or concave surfaces.  Mary Stafford-Smith.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Corallites on upper or convex surfaces are usually much longer then those of lower or concave surfaces.Mary Stafford-Smith.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing extended polyps at night.  Mary Stafford-Smith.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing extended polyps at night.Mary Stafford-Smith.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing corallites.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing corallites.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing characteristic corallite structure.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing characteristic corallite structure.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing corallites.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing corallites.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing characteristic corallite variation.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing characteristic corallite variation.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing whole colony.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing whole colony.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing plate formation.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing plate formation.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing plate formation.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing plate formation.

Turbinaria frondens.  Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  Showing fused plates.

Turbinaria frondens.Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Showing fused plates.